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Indicator 6.4.2 – Water stress

The level of water stress is defined as the ratio between total freshwater withdrawals by all economic activities and total available freshwater resources, after taking into account environmental flow requirements. Environmental flow requirements are essential to maintaining ecosystem health and resilience.

  • --- % At the global level, not enough country data were reported in 2017 to estimate how much of the world’s renewable water resources that are being withdrawn, after taking into account environmental flow requirements (SDG indicator 6.4.2 on level of water stress)
Data provider:
Available data series:
Proportion of UN Member States reporting on the indicator during the last 5 years:
Proportion of land area of UN Member States that are covered by reporting during the last 5 years:
Learn more about the indicator and how it is monitored
Read the latest progress report for an analysis of the current status

Global status of Indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (2017)

Freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (%)

Change over time for Indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources

Trend

SDG Progress Report

Global target: of people have access to safe water.
Current status: % has access to safe water.
Current rate of progress between -1 and : % of the world population gained access to safe drinking water.
Rate of progress required to reach target: % of population need to gain access to safe water per year.
On track to reach target:
With current rate of progress, target will be reached by year:

Status in different countries (or areas) on Indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (2017)

  • Australia and New Zealand
  • Eastern and South-Eastern Asia
  • Central and Southern Asia
  • Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Europe and Northern America
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Oceania (excluding Australia and New Zealand)
  • Northern Africa and Western Asia

Status in different SDG regions on Indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (2017)

Status on different components of Indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (2017)

Data on available water resources and water withdrawal disaggregated by source, and environmental flow requirements, for one country (as an example)

Source data Indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources

Country (or area), region and world data for the latest year of reporting: 1999 - 2017

Country (or area), region, world 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources
YearOverall (%)Renewable water resources (10^9 m3/year)Water withdrawal (10^9 m3/year)Environmental flow requirements (10^9 m3/year)
Afghanistan2000-201754.8065.3320.2828.29
Albania2006-20177.8830.201.3113.56
Algeria2016-2017127.6011.679.984.56
Andorra20170.320.19
Angola2005-20171.90148.400.71110.70
Antigua and Barbuda2012-20178.460.050.01
Argentina2011-201710.46876.2037.78515.80
Armenia201757.437.772.852.81
Australia2016-20176.2449216.13243.30
Austria2010-20179.5077.703.4941.51
Azerbaijan201756.4234.6812.7812.03
Bahamas20170.70
Bahrain2016-2017132.200.120.43
Bangladesh2008-20175.70122735.87600.30
Barbados2005-201787.500.080.08
Belarus2016-20174.7957.901.4527.56
Belgium2009-201773.8018.30610.16
Belize2000-20171.3021.730.1013.72
Benin2001-20170.9826.390.1313.06
Bhutan2008-20171.40780.3454.10
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)2009-20171.205742.09396.60
Bosnia and Herzegovina2013-20172.7037.500.3322.44
Botswana2016-20172.1012.240.202.68
Brazil2016-20173864763.506532
Brunei Darussalam20178.505.85
Bulgaria2015-201741.6021.305.637.77
Burkina Faso2005-20177.8013.500.823.04
Burundi2000-201710.5012.540.299.79
Cabo Verde2001-20176.770.300.02
Cambodia2006-20171.04476.102.18265.40
Cameroon2000-2017283.100.97213.40
Canada2015-20173.60290235.731931
Central African Republic2005-20170.301410.07119.40
Chad2005-20174.3045.700.8825.22
Chile2006-20178.98923.1035.43529.30
China2015-201743.402840598.101471
Colombia2008-20171.80236011.771692
Comoros1999-20171.201.200.01
Congo2002-20170.038320.05664.40
Costa Rica2015-20174.701133.1954.40
Côte d'Ivoire2014-20175.1084.141.1661.30
Croatia2013-20171.50105.500.6360.52
Cuba2013-201723.9038.126.969.06
Cyprus2016-201729.800.780.320.05
Czechia2016-201724.8613.151.646.57
Democratic People's Republic of Korea2005-201727.7077.158.6645.94
Democratic Republic of the Congo2005-20170.2012830.68981.70
Denmark2012-201717.2360.652.30
Djibouti2000-20176.300.300.02
Dominica2010-2017100.200.02
Dominican Republic2010-201739.7023.507.165.46
Ecuador2005-20176.80442.409.92296.20
Egypt2017119.5057.5077.502.60
El Salvador2005-201713.2026.272.1210.24
Equatorial Guinea2000-20170.20260.0215.21
Eritrea2004-201711.207.320.582.11
Estonia2014-201718.6012.811.723.57
Eswatini2000-201775.704.511.043.13
Ethiopia2016-201732.2612210.5589.30
Fiji2005-20170.5028.550.08
Finland2006-201715.561106.5667.83
France2016-201725.7121129.3796.77
Gabon2005-20170.501660.14138.30
Gambia2000-2017280.093.40
Georgia2008-20175.9063.331.8232.63
Germany2013-201734.7215425.3381.04
Ghana2000-20176.1056.200.9833.26
Greece2007-201719.4168.409.6318.97
Grenada2014-20177.100.200.01
Guatemala2006-20175.74127.903.3270.02
Guinea2001-20170.852260.55161
Guinea-Bissau2000-20171.5031.400.1819.70
Guyana2010-20173.302711.44227.20
Haiti2009-201713.4014.031.453.19
Honduras2003-20174.6092.161.6157.39
Hungary2012-20177.201045.0546.10
Iceland2015-20170.401700.2896.41
India2010-201766.501911761937.10
Indonesia2016-201729.682019222.601269
Iran (Islamic Republic of)2004-201781.4013793.3022.70
Iraq2016-201754.1389.8638.5518.66
Ireland2009-20173.60520.7631.22
Israel2004-2017122.401.781.950.62
Italy2015-201730.10191.3034.1977.81
Jamaica2016-201712.5110.821.35
Japan2009-201737.3043081.45212.50
Jordan2016-2017100.100.941.040.03
Kazakhstan2016-201729.73108.4022.7736.31
Kenya2016-201733.2430.704.0318.57
Kuwait2002-201720750.020.91
Kyrgyzstan2006-201750.0323.628.018.22
Lao People's Democratic Republic2005-20172.30333.503.49180.10
Latvia2016-20171.3234.940.2217.97
Lebanon2015-201757.304.501.841.42
Lesotho2000-20172.203.020.041.32
Liberia2000-20170.202320.13176.80
Libya2012-2017822.900.705.83
Lithuania201719.9624.502.7710.63
Luxembourg2016-20173.653.500.042.29
Madagascar2006-201711.3533713.56217.50
Malawi2005-201717.5017.281.369.53
Malaysia2005-20175.7058011.20385
Maldives2008-201715.700.030.01
Mali2006-201781205.1955.20
Malta2016-201782.970.050.06
Martinique200015.71
Mauritania2005-201713.2011.401.351.22
Mauritius2003-201726.302.750.72
Mexico2016-201732.14461.9086.58195.30
Monaco20090
Mongolia2016-20173.4034.800.4621.18
Montenegro20100.16
Morocco2010-201749.702910.438.17
Mozambique2015-20171.80217.101.47133
Myanmar2000-20175.80116833.23595
Namibia2002-20170.8639.910.297.19
Nepal2006-20178.31210.209.5095.94
Netherlands2014-201716.90918.9238.33
New Zealand2010-20174.203275.20204.30
Nicaragua2011-20172.70164.501.54107.20
Niger2016-20177.4534.051.7510.61
Nigeria2010-20179.70286.2012.47157.20
North Macedonia2007-201713.346.400.552.27
Norway2007-20172.303933.03261.50
Oman2003-201790.101.401.32
Pakistan2008-2017112.50246.80183.5083.79
Panama2016-20170.90139.301.214.86
Papua New Guinea2005-20170.108010.39504.50
Paraguay2012-20171.84387.802.41256.30
Peru2008-20172.50188013.661343
Philippines2015-20172647985.14151.90
Pitcairn201626.03
Poland2016-201736.6260.5010.5831.61
Portugal2007-201718.3877.409.1527.63
Puerto Rico2010-201786.907.104.152.62
Qatar2005-2017374.100.060.44
Republic of Korea2005-201784.8069.7029.2035.44
Republic of Moldova2007-201715.8212.271.065.54
Romania2016-20175.972126.37105.20
Russian Federation2016-20174.42452569.502953
Rwanda2000-20171.4013.300.1510.28
Saint Kitts and Nevis2012-201751.250.020.02
Saint Lucia2007-201714.300.300.04
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines2013-201711.200.100.01
Sao Tome and Principe2016-20171.882.180.04
Saudi Arabia2017871.702.4023.35
Senegal2002-201711.8138.972.2220.16
Serbia2016-20175.30162.204.7173.47
Seychelles20050.01
Sierra Leone2005-20170.501600.21117.20
Singapore20170.60
Slovakia2016-20172.3050.100.5426.86
Slovenia2016-2017631.870.8917.08
Solomon Islands201744.70
Somalia2003-201724.5014.703.301.25
South Africa2013-201744.4051.3515.5020.12
South Sudan2011-20174.2349.500.6633.93
Spain2014-201744111.5032.8538.15
Sri Lanka2005-201790.8052.8012.9538.54
State of Palestine2016-201751.120.840.360.14
Sudan2011-2017118.6037.8026.9315.10
Suriname2006-20173.95990.6283.41
Sweden2010-20173.901742.69104.70
Switzerland2012-20177.6553.50227.28
Syrian Arab Republic2005-201712616.8016.765.57
Tajikistan2006-201773.8221.9111.496.75
Thailand2007-201723.02438.6057.31189.60
Timor-Leste2004-201728.308.221.174.07
Togo2002-20172.5714.700.178.12
Tonga200518.68
Trinidad and Tobago2011-201720.333.840.382.19
Tunisia2017121.104.624.880.68
Turkey2016-201743.76211.6058.9576.97
Turkmenistan2004-2017143.6024.7727.955.36
Uganda2008-20175.8060.100.6449.17
Ukraine2016-201712.69175.309.8698.10
United Arab Emirates2005-20171866.700.154
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2016-201714.361478.4288.35
United Republic of Tanzania2002-201712.9696.275.1856.28
United States of America2015-201728.163069444.301491
Uruguay2000-20179.80172.203.66134.80
Uzbekistan2016-2017151.5048.8754.5614
Vanuatu201710
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)2007-20177.54132522.631025
Viet Nam2005-201718.10884.1082.03432.60
Yemen2005-2017168.302.103.56
Zambia2002-20172.84104.801.5749.36
Zimbabwe2007-201733.51203.579.35
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