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Progress on Level of Water Stress

Improving farming systems will help reduce the demand for water and alleviate the pressure on ecosystems. Healthy ecosystems are in turn essential to stabilize the water cycle, allowing more recharge for aquifers and a steadier run-off in surface streams.

  • 19 % of the world’s renewable water resources is being withdrawn, after taking into account environmental flow requirements (SDG indicator 6.4.2, 2019)

Available time series: 2000-2019
Number of countries (and areas) reporting in the last five years: 180
Proportion of world population covered by reporting in the last five years:100%

Proportion of world land area covered by reporting in the last five years: 100%
Learn more about the indicator here
Read the latest progress report here

SDG target 6.4 is: ‘By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity.’

To track progress towards the target, SDG indicator 6.4.2 monitors how much freshwater is being withdrawn by all economic activities, compared to the total renewable freshwater resources available.

Global status of indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (2019)

Number of people living in countries (or areas) with water stress (using more than 50% of available water resources): --- (---% of the world population)
Number of people living in countries (or areas) with critical water stress (using more than 100% of available water resources): --- (---% of the world population)

Freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (%)

Change over time of indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources

Status in different countries (or areas) of indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (2019)

  • Australia and New Zealand
  • Eastern and South-Eastern Asia
  • Central and Southern Asia
  • Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Europe and Northern America
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Oceania (excluding Australia and New Zealand)
  • Northern Africa and Western Asia

Status in different SDG regions of indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (2019)

Status of different components of indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (2017 - 2019)

Water resources and withdrawal, total and per capita
Renewable water resources, world average: --- m3 per capita (2017 - 2019)
Water withdrawal, world average: --- m3 per capita (2017 - 2019)
Environmental flow requirements: ---% of renewable water resources (2017 - 2019)  

Source data indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources

Country (or area), region and world data for the latest year of reporting: 2013 - 2019

Country (or area), region, worldYear 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources
Overall (%) Renewable water resources Water withdrawal Environmental flow requirements
Afghanistan2017-201954.7665.3320.3728.29
Albania2017-20196.8030.201.1313.56
Algeria2017-2019137.9211.6710.464.56
Andorra2017-20190.320.19
Angola2017-20191.87148.400.71110.70
Antigua and Barbuda20198.460.050.01
Argentina2017-201910.46876.2437.78515.80
Armenia2017-201957.807.772.862.81
Australia2017-20193.9349214.98243.30
Australia and New Zealand2017-20195.39819458.29
Austria2017-20199.6477.703.4941.51
Azerbaijan2017-201955.6034.6712.5912.03
Bahamas20190.70
Bahrain2019133.710.120.43
Bangladesh2017-20195.721227.0335.87600.30
Barbados201987.500.080.08
Belarus2017-20194.4857.901.3627.56
Belgium2017-201954.0718.304.2610.16
Belize2017-20191.2621.730.1013.72
Benin2017-20190.9826.390.2313.06
Bermuda20194.24
Bhutan2017-20191.41780.3454.10
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)2017-20191.185742.09396.60
Bosnia and Herzegovina2013-20192.0337.500.3322.44
Botswana2017-20192.1112.240.202.68
Brazil2017-20191.55864770.436532
Brunei Darussalam2017-20193.478.500.095.85
Bulgaria2017-201940.0821.305.427.77
Burkina Faso2017-20197.8213.500.823.04
Burundi2017-201910.1912.540.289.79
Cabo Verde20198.430.300.03
Cambodia2017-20191.04476.102.18265.40
Cameroon2017-20191.56283.151.09213.40
Canada2017-20193.73290236.231931
Central African Republic2017-20190.341410.07119.40
Central and Southern Asia2017-201970.394155.711691.54
Chad2017-20194.2945.700.8825.22
Chile2017-201921.62923.0632.37529.30
China2017-201943.222840.22598.101471
Colombia2017-20194.19236028.341692
Comoros20190.831.200.01
Congo2017-20190.038320.09664.40
Cook Islands20190
Costa Rica2017-20195.211132.4354.40
Croatia2017-20191.49105.500.7360.52
Cuba2017-201923.9438.126.969.06
Cyprus2017-201927.610.780.280.05
Czechia2017-201929.7013.151.516.57
Côte d'Ivoire2017-20195.0984.141.1661.30
Democratic People's Republic of Korea2017-201927.7477.158.6645.94
Democratic Republic of the Congo2017-20190.2312830.68981.70
Denmark2017-201924.9460.922.30
Djibouti20196.330.300.02
Dominica2019100.200.02
Dominican Republic2017-201939.5523.509.085.46
Eastern and South-Eastern Asia2017-201930.979847.025281.82
Ecuador2017-20196.78442.409.92296.20
Egypt2017-2019141.1757.5077.502.60
El Salvador2017-20192.4326.272.1210.24
Equatorial Guinea2017-20190.18260.0215.21
Eritrea2017-201911.187.320.582.11
Estonia2017-201910.8912.811.013.57
Eswatini2017-201977.564.511.073.13
Ethiopia2017-201932.2612210.5589.30
Europe and Northern America2017-201912.4713758.846845.87
Faroe Islands20190
Fiji20190.3028.550.08
Finland2017-20197.111102.9067.83
France2017-201923.5121126.8596.77
Gabon2017-20190.501660.14138.30
Gambia2017-20192.2180.103.40
Georgia2017-20195.1263.331.5732.63
Germany2017-201933.5015428.4881.04
Ghana2017-20196.3156.201.4633.26
Greece2017-201920.4668.4010.1218.97
Grenada20197.050.200.01
Guatemala2017-20195.74127.913.3270.02
Guinea2017-20191.372260.89161
Guinea-Bissau2017-20191.5031.400.1919.70
Guyana2017-20193.302711.44227.20
Haiti2017-201913.3814.021.453.19
Honduras2017-20194.6292.161.6157.39
Hungary2017-20197.711044.3546.10
Iceland2017-20190.391700.2896.41
India2017-201966.491910.90761937.10
Indonesia2017-201929.702018.70222.641269
Iran (Islamic Republic of)2017-201981.29137.0493.3022.70
Iraq2017-201979.5189.8656.6218.66
Ireland2017-201920.04521.4331.22
Israel2017-2019100.421.782.320.62
Italy2017-201930191.3034.1977.81
Jamaica201912.4710.821.35
Japan2017-201936.3743079.10212.50
Jordan2017-2019104.310.941.100.03
Kazakhstan2017-201932.65108.4125.0336.31
Kenya2017-201933.2430.704.0318.57
Kiribati20190
Kuwait20193850.500.021.25
Kyrgyzstan2017-201950.0423.627.668.22
Lao People's Democratic Republic2017-20194.79333.507.35180.10
Latin America and the Caribbean2017-20196.8219203.5210773.06
Latvia2017-20191.0534.940.1717.97
Lebanon2017-201958.794.501.841.42
Lesotho2017-20192.573.020.041.32
Liberia2017-20190.262320.15176.80
Libya2019817.140.705.83
Liechtenstein20190
Lithuania2017-20191.8324.500.2510.63
Luxembourg2017-20194.093.500.052.29
Madagascar2017-201911.2633713.56217.50
Malawi2017-201917.5017.281.369.53
Malaysia2017-20193.445805.49385
Maldives201915.670.030.01
Mali2017-201981205.1955.20
Malta201981.190.050.06
Marshall Islands20190
Mauritania2017-201913.2511.401.351.22
Mauritius201921.632.750.60
Mexico2017-201944.72461.8989.35195.30
Micronesia (Federated States of)20190
Monaco20190
Mongolia2017-20193.4034.800.4621.18
Montenegro20190.16
Morocco2017-201950.752910.438.17
Mozambique2017-20191.75217.101.47133
Myanmar2017-20195.801167.8033.39595
Namibia2017-20190.8639.910.297.19
Nauru20190.01
Nepal2017-20198.31210.209.5095.94
Netherlands2017-201917918.4038.33
New Zealand2017-20198.053274.89204.30
Nicaragua2017-20192.69164.521.54107.20
Niger2017-201911.0234.052.5810.61
Nigeria2017-20199.67286.2012.48157.20
Niue20190
North Macedonia2017-201925.276.400.862.27
Northern Africa and Western Asia2017-201984.07580.40108.91
Norway2017-20192.053932.69261.50
Oceania (excluding Australia and New Zealand)2017884.26556.97
Oman2019116.711.401.87
Pakistan2017-2019108.65246.80183.4583.79
Palau20190
Panama2017-20190.90139.301.214.86
Papua New Guinea2017-20190.138010.39504.50
Paraguay2017-20191.84387.772.41256.30
Peru2017-20197.181879.8038.551343
Philippines2017-201926.2547985.87151.90
Poland2017-201931.1060.509.8631.61
Portugal2017-201912.3277.406.1327.63
Puerto Rico2017-201919.547.103.272.62
Qatar2019431.030.060.92
Republic of Korea2017-201985.2269.7027.0835.44
Republic of Moldova2017-201912.4612.270.845.54
Romania2017-20196.01212.016.42105.20
Russian Federation2017-20194.124525.4464.822953
Rwanda2017-201920.2013.300.6110.28
Réunion20194.30
Saint Kitts and Nevis201950.830.020.02
Saint Lucia201914.300.300.04
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines20197.900.100.01
Samoa20190
Sao Tome and Principe20191.882.180.04
Saudi Arabia2019974.172.4025.99
Senegal2017-201911.8138.973.0220.16
Serbia2017-20196.33162.205.6273.47
Seychelles201900.01
Sierra Leone2017-20190.501600.21117.20
Singapore201982.170.600.66
Slovakia2017-20192.3950.100.6126.86
Slovenia2017-20196.3831.870.9417.08
Solomon Islands201944.70
Somalia2017-201924.5314.703.301.25
South Africa2017-201963.5651.3519.8520.12
South Sudan2017-20194.2349.500.6633.93
Spain2017-201940.18111.5029.4738.15
Sri Lanka2017-201990.7952.8012.9538.54
State of Palestine2017-201947.011.670.840.14
Sub-Saharan Africa2017-20196.105488.563025.05
Sudan2017-2019118.6637.8026.9415.10
Suriname2017-20193.95990.6283.41
Sweden2017-20193.431742.38104.70
Switzerland2017-20196.5053.501.7727.28
Syrian Arab Republic2017-2019124.3616.8016.765.57
Tajikistan2017-201969.9421.9110.606.75
Thailand2017-201923.01438.6157.31189.60
Timor-Leste2017-201928.278.221.174.07
Togo2017-20193.3914.700.228.12
Tokelau20190
Tonga20190
Trinidad and Tobago2017-201920.333.840.382.19
Tunisia2017-2019964.623.840.68
Turkmenistan2017-2019143.5624.7627.955.36
Tuvalu20190
Türkiye2017-201945.71211.6061.9276.97
Uganda2017-20195.8360.100.6449.17
Ukraine2017-201913.73175.2811.0798.10
United Arab Emirates20191630.670.155.07
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2017-201914.351478.4288.35
United Republic of Tanzania2017-201912.9696.275.1856.28
United States of America2017-201928.163069444.291491
Uruguay2017-20199.79172.203.66134.80
Uzbekistan2017-2019168.9248.8758.9014
Vanuatu201910
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)2017-20197.54132522.631025
Viet Nam2017-201918.13884.1282.03432.60
World2017-201918.5542825.6020556.29
Yemen2019169.762.103.56
Zambia2017-20192.84104.801.5749.36
Zimbabwe2017-201935.41203.779.35
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