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Progress on Level of Water Stress

Improving farming systems will help reduce the demand for water and alleviate the pressure on ecosystems. Healthy ecosystems are in turn essential to stabilize the water cycle, allowing more recharge for aquifers and a steadier run-off in surface streams.

  • 17 % of the world’s renewable water resources is being withdrawn, after taking into account environmental flow requirements (SDG indicator 6.4.2, 2018)

Available time series: 2000-2018
Number of countries (and areas) reporting in the last five years: 180
Proportion of world population covered by reporting in the last five years:100%

Proportion of world land area covered by reporting in the last five years: 100%
Learn more about the indicator here
Read the latest progress report here

SDG target 6.4 is: ‘By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity.’

To track progress towards the target, SDG indicator 6.4.2 monitors how much freshwater is being withdrawn by all economic activities, compared to the total renewable freshwater resources available.

Global status of indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (2018)

Number of people living in countries (or areas) with water stress (using more than 50% of available water resources): --- (---% of the world population)
Number of people living in countries (or areas) with critical water stress (using more than 100% of available water resources): --- (---% of the world population)

Freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (%)

Change over time of indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources

Status in different countries (or areas) of indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (2018)

  • Australia and New Zealand
  • Eastern and South-Eastern Asia
  • Central and Southern Asia
  • Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Europe and Northern America
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Oceania (excluding Australia and New Zealand)
  • Northern Africa and Western Asia

Status in different SDG regions of indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (2018)

Status of different components of indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources (2010 - 2017)

Water resources and withdrawal, total and per capita
Renewable water resources, world average: --- m3 per capita (2010 - 2017)
Water withdrawal, world average: --- m3 per capita (2010 - 2017)
Environmental flow requirements: ---% of renewable water resources (2010 - 2017)  

Source data indicator 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources

Country (or area), region and world data for the latest year of reporting: 1999 - 2018

Country (or area), region, worldYear 6.4.2 Level of water stress: freshwater withdrawal as a proportion of available freshwater resources
Overall (%) Renewable water resources Water withdrawal Environmental flow requirements
Afghanistan2000-201854.7665.3320.2828.29
Albania2006-20185.7630.201.3113.56
Algeria2016-2018137.9211.679.984.56
Andorra20170.320.19
Angola2005-20181.87148.400.71110.70
Antigua and Barbuda2012-20188.460.050.01
Argentina2011-201810.46876.2037.78515.80
Armenia2017-201854.757.772.852.81
Australia2016-20184.6649216.13243.30
Austria2010-20189.6477.703.4941.51
Azerbaijan2017-201853.7334.6812.7812.03
Bahamas20170.70
Bahrain2016-2018133.710.120.43
Bangladesh2008-20185.72122735.87600.30
Barbados2005-201887.500.080.08
Belarus2016-20184.5857.901.4527.56
Belgium2009-201849.0718.30610.16
Belize2000-20181.2621.730.1013.72
Benin2001-20180.9826.390.1313.06
Bermuda20184.24
Bhutan2008-20181.41780.3454.10
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)2009-20181.185742.09396.60
Bosnia and Herzegovina2013-20182.6637.500.3322.44
Botswana2016-20182.0212.240.202.68
Brazil2016-20183.05864763.506532
Brunei Darussalam2017-20183.478.505.85
Bulgaria2015-201840.1021.305.637.77
Burkina Faso2005-20187.8113.500.823.04
Burundi2000-201810.1912.540.299.79
Cabo Verde2001-20188.430.300.02
Cambodia2006-20181.04476.102.18265.40
Cameroon2000-20181.56283.100.97213.40
Canada2015-20183.67290235.731931
Central African Republic2005-20180.341410.07119.40
Chad2005-20184.2945.700.8825.22
Chile2006-201821.62923.1035.43529.30
China2015-201843.222840598.101471
Colombia2008-20182.04236011.771692
Comoros1999-20180.831.200.01
Congo2002-20180.038320.05664.40
Costa Rica2015-20184.111133.1954.40
Côte d'Ivoire2014-20185.0984.141.1661.30
Croatia2013-20181.50105.500.6360.52
Cuba2013-201823.9438.126.969.06
Cyprus2016-201828.290.780.320.05
Czechia2016-201824.1913.151.646.57
Democratic People's Republic of Korea2005-201827.7477.158.6645.94
Democratic Republic of the Congo2005-20180.2312830.68981.70
Denmark2012-201828.9360.652.30
Djibouti2000-20186.330.300.02
Dominica2010-2018100.200.02
Dominican Republic2010-201850.3123.507.165.46
Ecuador2005-20186.78442.409.92296.20
Egypt2017-2018116.9457.5077.502.60
El Salvador2005-201813.2126.272.1210.24
Equatorial Guinea2000-20180.18260.0215.21
Eritrea2004-201811.187.320.582.11
Estonia2014-201817.4112.811.723.57
Eswatini2000-201877.564.511.043.13
Ethiopia2016-201832.2612210.5589.30
Fiji2005-20180.3028.550.08
Finland2006-201815.561106.5667.83
France2016-201823.6421129.3796.77
Gabon2005-20180.501660.14138.30
Gambia2000-20182.2180.093.40
Georgia2008-20184.2163.331.8232.63
Germany2013-201833.5015425.3381.04
Ghana2000-20186.3156.200.9833.26
Greece2007-201820.4868.409.6318.97
Grenada2014-20187.050.200.01
Guatemala2006-20185.74127.903.3270.02
Guinea2001-20181.372260.55161
Guinea-Bissau2000-20181.5031.400.1819.70
Guyana2010-20183.302711.44227.20
Haiti2009-201813.3814.031.453.19
Honduras2003-20184.6292.161.6157.39
Hungary2012-20187.651045.0546.10
Iceland2015-20180.391700.2896.41
India2010-201866.491911761937.10
Indonesia2016-201829.702019222.601269
Iran (Islamic Republic of)2004-201881.2913793.3022.70
Iraq2016-201847.1389.8638.5518.66
Ireland2009-20186.87520.7631.22
Israel2004-201895.941.781.950.62
Italy2015-201830191.3034.1977.81
Jamaica2016-201812.4710.821.35
Japan2009-201836.4643081.45212.50
Jordan2016-2018100.080.941.040.03
Kazakhstan2016-201832.65108.4022.7736.31
Kenya2016-201833.2430.704.0318.57
Kuwait2002-20183850.500.020.91
Kyrgyzstan2006-201850.0423.628.018.22
Lao People's Democratic Republic2005-20184.77333.503.49180.10
Latvia2016-20181.0834.940.2217.97
Lebanon2015-201858.794.501.841.42
Lesotho2000-20182.573.020.041.32
Liberia2000-20180.262320.13176.80
Libya2012-2018817.140.705.83
Lithuania2017-20181.8324.502.7710.63
Luxembourg2016-20184.333.500.042.29
Madagascar2006-201811.3433713.56217.50
Malawi2005-201817.5017.281.369.53
Malaysia2005-20183.4458011.20385
Maldives2008-201815.670.030.01
Mali2006-201881205.1955.20
Malta2016-201881.740.050.06
Mauritania2005-201813.2511.401.351.22
Mauritius2003-201821.482.750.72
Mexico2016-201833.32461.9086.58195.30
Monaco20090
Mongolia2016-20183.4034.800.4621.18
Montenegro20100.16
Morocco2010-201850.752910.438.17
Mozambique2015-20181.75217.101.47133
Myanmar2000-20185.80116833.23595
Namibia2002-20180.8639.910.297.19
Nepal2006-20188.31210.209.5095.94
Netherlands2014-201815.38918.9238.33
New Zealand2010-20188.053275.20204.30
Nicaragua2011-20182.69164.501.54107.20
Niger2016-20187.4534.051.7510.61
Nigeria2010-20189.67286.2012.47157.20
North Macedonia2007-201825.276.400.552.27
Norway2007-20182.053933.03261.50
Oman2003-2018116.711.401.32
Pakistan2008-2018118.24246.80183.5083.79
Panama2016-20180.90139.301.214.86
Papua New Guinea2005-20180.138010.39504.50
Paraguay2012-20181.84387.802.41256.30
Peru2008-20186.54188013.661343
Philippines2016-201828.6647985.14151.90
Poland2016-201833.2260.5010.5831.61
Portugal2007-201812.3277.409.1527.63
Puerto Rico2010-201819.547.104.152.62
Qatar2005-2018431.030.060.44
Republic of Korea2005-201885.2269.7029.2035.44
Republic of Moldova2007-201812.4312.271.065.54
Réunion201815.33
Romania2016-20186.012126.37105.20
Russian Federation2016-20184.04452569.502953
Rwanda2000-20186.0913.300.1510.28
Saint Kitts and Nevis2012-201850.830.020.02
Saint Lucia2007-201814.300.300.04
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines2013-20187.900.100.01
Sao Tome and Principe2016-20181.882.180.04
Saudi Arabia2017-2018992.832.4023.35
Senegal2002-201811.8138.972.2220.16
Serbia2016-20186.26162.204.7173.47
Seychelles20050.01
Sierra Leone2005-20180.501600.21117.20
Singapore2017-201882.020.60
Slovakia2016-20182.3950.100.5426.86
Slovenia2016-20186.5031.870.8917.08
Solomon Islands201744.70
Somalia2003-201824.5314.703.301.25
South Africa2013-201863.5651.3515.5020.12
South Sudan2011-20184.2349.500.6633.93
Spain2014-201842.56111.5032.8538.15
Sri Lanka2005-201890.7952.8012.9538.54
State of Palestine2016-201862.760.840.360.14
Sudan2011-2018118.6637.8026.9315.10
Suriname2006-20183.95990.6283.41
Sweden2010-20183.431742.69104.70
Switzerland2012-20186.5053.50227.28
Syrian Arab Republic2005-2018124.3616.8016.765.57
Tajikistan2006-201861.5121.9111.496.75
Thailand2007-201823.01438.6057.31189.60
Timor-Leste2004-201828.278.221.174.07
Togo2002-20183.3914.700.178.12
Trinidad and Tobago2011-201820.333.840.382.19
Tunisia2017-2018964.624.880.68
Turkey2016-201845.38211.6058.9576.97
Turkmenistan2004-2018143.5624.7727.955.36
Uganda2008-20185.8360.100.6449.17
Ukraine2016-201813.87175.309.8698.10
United Arab Emirates2005-20181667.330.154
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2016-201814.351478.4288.35
United Republic of Tanzania2002-201812.9696.275.1856.28
United States of America2015-20186.523069444.301491
Uruguay2000-20189.79172.203.66134.80
Uzbekistan2016-2018168.9248.8754.5614
Vanuatu201710
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)2007-20187.54132522.631025
Viet Nam2005-201818.13884.1082.03432.60
Yemen2005-2018169.762.103.56
Zambia2002-20182.84104.801.5749.36
Zimbabwe2007-201835.41203.579.35
Australia and New Zealand2017-20185.89819458.29
Central and Southern Asia2017-201871.284155.711691.54
Eastern and South-Eastern Asia2017-201831.189847.025281.82
Europe and Northern America2017-20186.8913758.846845.87
Latin America and the Caribbean2017-20186.5019203.5210773.06
Northern Africa and Western Asia2017-201874.32580.40108.91
Oceania (excluding Australia and New Zealand)2017-20180.14884.26556.97
Sub-Saharan Africa2017-20186.075488.563025.05
World2017-201816.7542825.6020556.29
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